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249.為政>禮樂 V3:子張問聖人之所以教

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发表于 2019-6-12 04:51:33 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
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Chapter Four 為政 ON THE SUBJECT OF ADMINISTRATION
八、禮樂Propriety and Music


249、子張問聖人之所以教,孔子曰:「師①乎,吾語汝。聖人明於禮樂,舉而措②之而已。」子張又問,孔子曰:「師,爾以為必布几筵③,揖讓升降④,酌獻⑤酬酢⑥,然後謂之禮乎?爾以為必行綴兆⑦,執羽籥⑧,作鐘鼓,然後謂之樂⑨乎?言而可履,禮也;行而可樂,樂也。聖人力此二者,以恭己⑩南面,是故天下太平,萬國順服,百官承事,上下有禮也。」(卷十 孔子家語)


【註釋】①師:即子張。姓顓孫,名師。事又見《禮記‧仲尼燕居》。②措:施行。③几筵(jīyán/ㄐㄧㄧㄢˊ):猶几席,為古人憑依、坐臥的器具。几:古人坐時憑依或擱置物件的小桌。筵:以竹篾、枝條和蒲葦等編織成的席子。古代用來鋪地做坐墊。④揖讓升降:均指接待賓客之禮。揖讓:作揖謙讓,古代賓主相見的禮儀。升降:上升與下降。迎送賓客的禮儀。⑤酌(zhuó/ㄓㄨㄛˊ)獻:酌酒獻客。酌:斟酒。⑥酬酢(chóuzuò/ㄔㄡˊㄗㄨㄛˋ):主客相互敬酒,主敬客稱酬,客還敬稱酢。指朝聘應享的禮儀。⑦綴兆:古代樂舞中舞者的行列位置。⑧羽籥(yuè/ㄩㄝˋ):古代祭祀或宴饗時,文舞舞者所持的舞具和樂器。羽:指雉羽。籥:一種編組多管樂器。⑨樂:使其歡樂。⑩恭己:恭謹以律己。南面:古代以坐北朝南為尊位,故帝王諸侯見群臣,或卿大夫見僚屬,皆面向南而坐,因用以指居帝王或諸侯、卿大夫之位。


【白話】子張向孔子請教君王如何實施教化治理政 事,孔子說:「子張啊,我來告訴你。聖王通曉『 禮』和『樂』,把它們交互施用罷了。」子張進一步 請教,孔子說:「子張,你認為一定要大擺宴席,賓 主拱手相讓上座下座,相互斟酒敬獻,這樣才叫做『 禮』嗎?你認為一定要舞者排列好行列和位置,手拿 雉羽和樂器,擊鳴鐘鼓,這樣才叫做『樂』嗎?說出 的話可以踐行,就是『禮』;施行起來能夠使大家歡 樂,就是『樂』。聖王能勉力做到這兩點,以恭敬律 己的態度居於帝位,因此天下得以太平,各國順服, 百官盡職盡責,上上下下都有禮節。」


249. Zi Zhang asked Confucius about the ways in which a ruler could implement education for administrative purposes. Confucius said: “Dear Zi Zhang, let me explain this to you. The sage-kings were proficient in proprieties and music, and what they did was merely to use them in alternation.” Zi Zhang asked further, to which Confucius replied: “Dear Zi Zhang, do you think that holding a grand banquet with the guests and the host(s) bowing to each other with clasped hands, and yielding best seats to each other combined with mutual wine-pouring can be called ‘propriety’? Do you think that having dancers in their respective rows and positions, holding pheasant feathers and musical instruments and striking bells and hitting drums can be called ‘music’? Words that can be put into practice, that is propriety; if what is carried out brings happiness to all, that is music. A sage-king managed to accomplish these two aspects and remained respectful and self-disciplined in his position as a ruler. As a result, the world was peaceful, all countries would submit to him, the officials faithfully fulfilled their roles, and everybody regardless of their status observed proprieties.”


Scroll 10: Kong Zi Jia Yu

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