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202.為政>教化 V3:觀誠

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发表于 2019-4-3 08:31:41 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
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Chapter Four 為政 ON THE SUBJECT OF ADMINISTRATION
三、知人 Good Judge of Character

202、富貴者,觀其有禮施①;貧窮者,觀其有德守②;嬖寵③者,觀其不驕奢;隱約④者,觀其不懾懼。其少者,觀其恭敬好學而能弟;其壯者,觀其潔廉務行而勝其私;其老者,觀其思慎、彊⑤其所不足而不踰⑥。父子之間,觀其慈孝;兄弟之間,觀其和友;君臣之間,觀其忠惠;鄉黨之間,觀其信誠。設⑦之以謀,以觀其智;示之以難,以觀其勇;煩之以事,以觀其治;臨之以利,以觀其不貪;濫之以樂,以觀其不荒。喜之以觀其輕,怒之以觀其重,醉之以觀其失,縱之以觀其常,遠之以觀其不貳,昵⑧之以觀其不狎。復徵⑨其言,以觀其精;曲省其行,以觀其備。此之謂觀誠。(卷八 周書)


【註釋】①施:施惠。②德守:道德操守。③嬖(bì/ㄅㄧˋ)寵:受君主寵愛。④隱約:困厄,儉約。⑤彊(qiăng/ㄑㄧㄤˇ):同「強」。勉力;勤勉。⑥踰:當作「偷」。苟且之意。⑦設:設置,安排。⑧昵:同「暱」。親近;親昵。⑨徵:證明;證驗。


【白話】富貴之人,要看他是否舉止有禮而好施惠;貧窮之人,要看他是否有德行操守;備受寵幸之人,要看他是否不驕不奢;處於困厄之人,要看他是否不膽小怕事。年輕人,要看他有無恭敬好學的態度和尊重長上之心;壯年人,要看他是否廉潔務實而且能克制私欲;老年人,要看他的思惟是否謹慎,勤勉努力彌補自己的不足而不苟且度日。父子之間,看他是否慈愛或孝順;兄弟之間,看他是否和睦與友愛;君臣之間,看他是否忠義或仁愛;鄉黨之間,看他是否誠實守信。讓他施行某種謀劃,以此來觀察他的智慧;將困難擺到他面前,以此來觀察他的勇氣;派他處理煩雜的事務,以此審視他的治理能力;讓他面對某種利益,以此觀察他是否不貪;讓他沉浸於享樂的環境中,以此觀察他是否不縱欲迷亂。使他歡悅,看他是否輕佻;激他發怒,看他是否穩重;讓他喝醉,看他是否會失去恭慎的儀態;任其行事,看他是否還遵從一貫的行為準則;疏遠他,看他是否忠誠不貳;親近他,看他是否輕慢失禮。反覆地驗證他前後說過的話,看他是否有真實的學問;詳盡地察訪他的行為,看他德行是否完備。這些歸結起來就稱作「觀誠」(洞察實情)。


202. If a person is rich and of noble status, observe if his conduct is courteous and whether he is generous in providing benefits to others. If a person is poor, observe whether he is virtuous.


If he is extremely favored, see if he is humble and thrifty. If he is in distress, see whether he is bold and brave.


If he is young, observe whether he is respectful and eager to learn, and whether he honors the seniors. For a man in his prime years, see whether he is honest and pragmatic, and whether he can restrain his desires. If the person has reached an old age, see whether he is careful in his thoughts, diligent to make up for his inadequacies and avoids whiling away the days.


In the relationship between parents and children, observe whether the parents are loving and the children are filial. In the relationship between siblings, see if they love each other and have harmonious relations. In the relationship between a ruler and his subordinates, see if the leader is benevolent and the subordinates are faithful and righteous. In one’s relationship with other villagers and parties, observe whether he is honest and trustworthy.


Let him implement projects to observe his wisdom. Challenge him with difficult tasks to observe his courage. Assign him to manage some complicated affairs to evaluate his management skills. Confront him with some personal profits and see if he could avoid being greedy. Immerse him in an environment to enjoy the pleasures of life to observe if he could restrain his desires and prevent himself from being dissolute. Make him happy and see if he becomes frivolous. Make him angry and observe if he is unshaken. Get him drunk and see if he loses his respectful and discreet manner. Let him carry out some tasks and see if he follows the normal code of conduct. Maintain a distance from him and see if he is faithful and honest. Get closer to him and see if he is rude and arrogant. Repeatedly verify his speech to see if he is truly knowledgeable. Thoroughly evaluate his conduct to see whether his virtuous conduct is complete.


All this, in summary, is called Guan Cheng 觀誠 (an insight into the real situation).


Scroll 8: Zhou Shu
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