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184.為政>務本 V3:厚賞重刑,未足以勸善而禁非,必信而已矣

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发表于 2019-3-9 19:34:31 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
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Chapter Four 為政 ON THE SUBJECT OF ADMINISTRATION
一、務本 Engaging the Principles

184、臣聞,上古堯舜之時,不貴爵賞,而民勸善①;不重刑罰,而民不犯。躬②率以正,遇③民信也。末世貴爵厚賞,而民不信也。夫厚賞重刑,未足以勸善而禁非,必信而已矣。是故因能任官,則分職治;去無用之言,則事情④得;不作無用之器,即賦斂省;不奪民時,即百姓富;有德者進,無德者退,則朝廷尊;有功者上,無功者下,則群臣逡⑤;罰當罪則姦邪止;賞當賢則臣下勸。凡此八者,治之本也。(卷十八 漢書六)


【註釋】①勸善:勉力為善。勸:勤勉;努力。②躬:親自。③遇:對待。④事情:事物的真相;實情。⑤逡(qūn/ㄑㄩㄣ):退讓,退避。


【白話】(公孫弘上疏說:)我聽說上古堯舜的時代,不重視封爵、賞賜,而人民都能努力向善;不崇尚施用嚴刑重罰,而人民卻不輕易犯法。這是因為堯舜自身以無私公正之心領導臣民,對待人民有信義。到了後世重視封爵,厚加賞賜,可是人民卻並不信任。豐厚的賞賜、嚴厲的刑罰,不足以勉勵人們向善、禁止人們為非,必須對百姓有信義才行。所以,按照能力任用官員,則各自分配的職務就能治理得當;去除無用的言詞,就能了解事物的真相;不製作無用的器物,就能減少稅賦;不耽誤農時,百姓就能富足;有德行的人予以進用,無德行的人予以斥退,朝廷就能樹立起威信;有功勞的人得到提拔,無功勞的人給予降職,群臣就能明白退讓的道理;處罰的輕重適合其罪行,姦邪之人就會止步;獎賞的多少適合其賢能程度,臣下就會得到勉勵。總括這八點,是治國的根本。


184. In his memorial to the king, Gong Sun Hong said: “I heard that Emperors Yao and Shun from antiquity attached little importance to conferring noble titles and providing rewards, but the people strove toward virtuousness. Both emperors did not advocate the use of severe punishments, yet violation of the law was uncommon. This is because Emperors Yao and Shun guided their officials and the people through their selflessness and justice, and were trustworthy and righteous toward the people. In the later eras, importance was given to conferring noble titles and offering extra rewards, but paradoxically, the people did not trust them. Handsome rewards and severe punishments were insufficient to inspire the people toward virtuousness and to prevent them from doing evil. A leader must be trustworthy toward the people. Hence, by appointing officials based on their abilities, the duties assigned could be well managed. By shedding unnecessary speech, the truth could be understood. By eschewing the production of useless utensils, taxes could be reduced. By making the most of the farming seasons, the people could be made prosperous. When virtuous people are employed, unscrupulous ones would be dismissed, and the imperial court could thus establish its dignity. If those with contributions were promoted whereas those without were demoted, the ministers would understand the principle of making concessions. If the extent of the punishment were proper for the offense, treacherous people would stop behaving in an evil way. If the extent of the reward matches the level of one’s wisdom and capability, the lower-ranking officials would feel encouraged. These eight aspects constitute the foundation of governing a country.”


Scroll 18: Han Shu, Vol. 6
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